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《壮族文化概论》介绍·前言·目录

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2003-5-16
发表于 2004-6-7 23:38:00 |显示全部楼层

《壮 族 文 化 概 论》 ——作者:梁庭望* 前言

我的家乡是祖国的一块“远胜登仙去”的好地方,那儿“江作青罗,山如碧玉簪”,终年山花烂漫,绿也如茵。在那山奇水秀的峒场山弄里,居住着勤劳朴实的壮人。他们世世代代不断的耕耘,把祖国的南疆打扮得处处是桂林山水,峒峒是阳朔风光。我虽然离开故乡40多年,但梦魂总是萦绕乡情。由历史久远的民族所孕育的集体无意识的情结,已经融入到我的奔涌的血液里。情结导引着我企图去探讨一个少数民族中人口最多的民族。这是很艰难的,一个人又能做但是事情呢?我选取了文化学这个角度,选取了广义的文化,因为壮族对缔造祖国是出过力的,有过贡献的,它是民族大家庭中一个伟大的成员,有着极其灿烂的文化。时代为我探讨壮族文化提供良好的契机,在国家社会科学“九五”规划项目里,添列了这一项:壮族文化与现代化关系研究。

要研究壮族文化与现代化的关系,首先就要承认壮族有自己的文化。在世界上,之所以分出2000多个民族来,就因为他们有不同的文化传统,因此没有文化的民族是不存在的。虎豹无纹类犬羊,一个历史悠久的、顽强的民族,必定有自己生存的方式和技能。正因如此,炎州如织,大漠如海,雪山入云,林莽烟峰,风雨雷震,浊浪触天,蛇横大路,虎跃平阳,都挡不住人类的进化和发展。因此,对民族文化的探索、剖析,要用历唯物主义和辨证法。由于种种原因,要到教科书里去找民族文化是很难的,因为许多壮族年轻人都不大知道自己的民族从何而来,有何特点。鉴于此,本书一开始便按纵向梳理壮族文化的脉络,显露其嬗变的轨迹,审视其由粗到精,由小到大,由低到高的发展历程。而后按横向系统剖析其结构,对物质文化及精神文化的各个元素一一分析,再整合成较为系统和全面文化构架。这个纵横结构虽不能完全反映出壮族文化的全貌和辉煌,但它是可以给人们一个总体印象的。无论如何,我们有责任告诉世人,壮族之所以被国人注意并不仅仅在于它的人口众多,更在于它有悠久的历史和灿烂的文化。

研究一个民族的文化,可以有不同的角度和方法。但有一点是要注意的,那就是不为寻找历史碎片去钩沉。猎奇不应当是文化学的向导。就壮族的传统文化而言,它有许多优秀的东西,值得人们去挖掘,去分析,去继承,去弘扬,并成为民族前进的力量。一个丢掉传统的民族,必然要造成传承系统的断列和混乱,导致步伐的停滞,不利于发展。但是,壮族的传统文化是在自给自足的自然经济基础上产生的,它产生的土壤是贫瘠的。因此,对壮族文化要去粗取精,进行扬弃。毕竟我们不可能在原来的文化层次上实现现代化。在世纪之交,早信息时代,当科学和教育愈来愈成为一个民族生命之树常青的根基和血液时,壮族文化中从传统带来的一些症结正在干扰它前进的步伐。与国内先进民族相比,壮族滞后了,壮族是个大民族,人数在世界上排在60位左右,这在全球2000多个民族里是很靠前的,但它的经济状况和它的人口排行并不一致。壮族中有许多有识之士,壮族地区的各级政府公务员,何尝不对此费尽心力,希望壮族地区能较快改观,希望壮族能在祖国的振兴事业中作出与其人口相称的贡献。但这需要机遇,需要找出症结,用科学的判断去寻找振兴壮族文化的切口。

机遇终于降临,这就是改革开放。特别是90年代以来,世界风云突变,而中国的经济却在腾飞,令人瞩目,这给壮族文化的现代化提供了百年不遇的内部条件。壮族文化的现代化要靠党,靠政府,靠广大干部群众,任何个人是很难开出什么灵丹妙药的。笔者在第四编里的那些设想、建议,也许并不重要,重要的是参与,是我们虽为“区外游子“而依然心系壮乡的赤子直心。有些设想,诸如优先发展教育(尤其是职业技术教育)、更新观念、抓住一边一线机遇、调整和优化产业结构、大力发展三产等,是有一定普遍意义的。

壮族是一个有1600多万人口(1997年)的民族,主要分布在岭南的广阔地带。其中1500多万人分布于广西壮族自治区;87.1万人分布于云南省文山壮族苗族自治州,另有13万人分布于云南省其他县;约5万人分布于广东省连山壮族瑶族自治及怀集县等地;1.57万人分布于贵州省,酃东南苗族侗族自治州;5000多人分布于湖南省江华瑶族自治县等地;近3000人分布于四川省的宁南、木里、会东等地;1000余人分布于陕西省柞水县;4400多人分布在新疆维吾尔自治区;作为中国第二的民族,壮族的现代化对中华民族的振兴具有重要的意义。只要集思广益,群策群力,壮族文化现代化的伟业定能实现,壮族总有一天能以一个先进民族的面貌雄立于祖国的南疆。

前言·······················································(1

第一编 总论···················································(1

第一章 文化的定义、性质和特征··········································(3

第一节 文化热及其背景·············································(5

第二节 文化的定义和范围············································· (9)

第三节 文化的性质和特征·············································(13)

第四节 壮族文化的模式·············································(17

第二章 原始社会及其文化··············································(24

第一节 族源和族称··············································(25

第二节 原始社会················································(34

第三节 精神文化···············································(43

第三章 奴隶会及其文化···············································(47

第一节 东方奴隶制···············································(48

第二节 奴隶制文化···············································(53

第四章 封建社会及其文化··············································(59

第一节 封建农奴制和地主制···········································(60

第二节 封建制文化···············································(69

第五章 近现代社会及其文化············································(75

第一节 半殖民地半封建社会··········································(76

第二节 近现代文化···············································(87

第二篇壮族物质文化···············································(91

第一章 生产工具··················································(93

第一节 石器时代的生产工具···········································(95

第二节 青铜时代的生产工具··········································(100

第三节 铁器时代的生产工具··········································(107

第二章 稻作农耕·················································(121

第一节 水稻种植···············································(122

第二节 其他粮食作物·············································(141

第三章 狩猎、畜牧和饲养·············································(145

第一节 狩猎·················································(147

第二节 畜牧、饲养··············································(152

第四章 林业园艺·················································(162

第一节 漫长的森林开发史···········································(164

第二节 实用林木的护理和栽培·········································(168

第三节 经济林的栽培·············································(173

第四节 果林及水果培育············································(176

第五章 织染···················································(183

第一节 织染历程···············································(185

第二节 原料及织染技艺············································(189

第三节 壮锦·················································(196

第六章 捕捞与养殖················································(201

第一节 捕捞与养殖简史············································(202

第二节 淡水养殖···············································(204

第三节 海洋鱼业···············································(209

第七章 航运···················································(215

第一节 航运历史···············································(217

第二节 疏浚河道···············································(219

第三节 造船术················································(222

第四节 航海·················································(224

第八章 交通贸易·················································(233

第一节 壮族社会内部的交贸··········································(234

第二节 与中原的商贸交往···········································(238

第三节与西南地区的交贸···········································(242

第四节 与番禺的贸易·············································(245

第五节 海外贸易···············································(247

第九章 陶瓷制造·················································(252

第一节 壮族陶瓷发展的历程··········································(254

第二节 制作技艺···············································(257

第三节 功能及造型··············································(260

第十章 冶练铸造·················································(265

第一节 冶炼铸造历程·············································(266

第二节 冶炼铸造技艺·············································(269

第三节 金属器具构造及功能··········································(273

第十一章 建筑··················································(281

第一节 干栏·················································(282

第二节 其他建筑···············································(288

第三编 壮族精神文化··············································(297

第一章 社会制度················································(299

第一节 史前制度··············································(300

第二节 奴隶制度···············································(306

第三节 土司制度···············································(311

第二章 兵制兵法················································(317

第一节 兵制兵法简史············································(318

第二节 芩家兵法··············································(323

第三章 家庭和社会组织·············································(332

第一节 家庭、家族和宗教··········································(333

第二节 村落················································(337

第三节 社会组织·············································(341

第四章 教育··················································(346

第一节 教育简史··············································(347

第二节 民间教育··············································(351

第三节 学校教育··············································(356

第五章 科学················································(363

第一节 种植科学··············································(364

第二节 数理化的萌芽与利用·········································(370

第三节 其他科学··············································(375

第六章 《传扬歌》——壮族“道德经” ···································(379

第一节 社会道德··················································(382

第二节 做人规范·········································(383

第三节 家庭伦理·················································(387

第七章 壮医··················································(392

第一节 壮医发展简史···············································(393

第二节 诊断和治疗··········································(396

第三节 壮药和单方···········································401

第八章 哲学思想 ···············································(407

第一节 氏族社会哲学的萌芽······································(408

第二节 文明时代的百姓哲学······································(412

第三节 上层文人哲学观········································(417

第九章 民俗·················································(424

第一节 生产习俗··········································(425

第二节 生活习俗··········································(429

第三节 礼仪习俗··········································(442

第十章 宗教信仰···············································(450

第一节 原始宗教··········································(451

第二节 巫和巫教··········································(456

第三节 道教、佛教及其他······································(463

第十一章 节日···········································(467

第一节 春天的节日···········································(469

第二节 夏天的节日············································(476

第三秋天的节日············································(480

第四节 冬天的节日············································(483

第十二章 语言文字·············································(487

第一节 壮语················································(488

第二节 文字·················································(496

第十三章 文学艺术·············································(506

第一节 文学·················································(507

第二节 艺术·················································(512

第三节 壮族文学艺术的结构和功能·······································(519

第十四章 文体活动·············································(522

第一节 文娱·················································(523

第二节 棋类·················································(528

第三节 体育·················································(531

第四编 壮族文化与现代化·········································(539

第一章 壮族文化的结构···········································(541

第一节 壮族文化的三结构···········································(542

第二节 壮族文化的多源结构··········································(551)

第二章 汉文化对壮族的深刻影响·······································(557

第一节 汉文化影响的历史··········································(559

第二节 汉文化影响的特点···········································(564

第三章 壮族文化的功能··············································(575

第一节 壮族文化的功绩············································(576

第二节 壮族文化功能的衰竭··········································(584

第四章 壮族文化重组的客观形势·······································(592

第一节 壮族文化重组的必要性·········································(593

第二节 文化重组的机遇············································(597

第五章 壮族文化的现代化···········································(602

第一节 重新部署教育格局··········································(603

第二节 建构时代的心态············································(611

第三节 调整和优化的心态···········································(617

第四节 优化第二、第三产业结构·········································(623

后记·······················································(632

*注:梁庭望先生是中央民族大学教授,壮学权威专家。

[此贴子已经被作者于2004-6-8 0:02:02编辑过]

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发表于 2004-6-8 09:22:00 |显示全部楼层

土地 民族 家园 母亲 http://blog.163.com/gaisi144
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Daez moeg gig ndei ! Danh saeh mbouj ndaej aeu Sawgun sij ,wngdang aeu Sawcuengh sij, Aeu Sawgun sij caemh dangq duet vaq hawj vunz yawj, doiq Bouxcuengh fatcienq mbouj miz ndei cawq, aen vih Bouxgun ndaw de miz gyoengq vunz cien menz ciengj dued Bouxcuengh vwnzvaq cwngzgoj,dang naeuz mwngz guh mbouj daengz,mbouj ndaej aeu Sawcuengh sij, Mwngz couh aeu bae cijdauj Bouxrox Sawcuengh sij, mwngz seizneix miz vanj haeux gwn, aeu nganh daengz miz hauj lai vunz cuengh mbouj miz vanj haeux gwn !Bouxcuengh boux gvai aeu it bien ngvanh sij gij lizsij bonjfaen,it bien guh gij lizsij bonjfaenh ! sijdaengz aeu guh daengz !Guh daengz aeu sij daengz, ngvanh sij--ngvanh guh doengz caez byaij !yiengh haenx cij ndaej baujciz aen minz cuz raeuz gij siencinq dieg vih !


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发表于 2004-6-12 12:39:00 |显示全部楼层
此书的出版对《僚人家园》的贝侬来说,是一大喜事,可喜可贺。

SenYu---- 浓浓的异乡情,只因爱的存在。
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